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Legal Aspects of a StartupStartup Basics

Launching Your Dream. A Comprehensive Guide to Starting a Sole Proprietorship


Embarking on the journey of starting your own business? A sole proprietorship could be the perfect avenue for you. As a popular choice among freelancers and aspiring entrepreneurs, a sole proprietorship allows you to transform your passion into a professionally recognized enterprise. Despite lacking legal protection over personal assets during lawsuits or financial downturns, this business model’s simplicity makes it attractive to many. It’s relatively easy to set up, involves less administrative work than other legal structures, and allows you to start trading under your chosen business name quickly.

This comprehensive guide is designed for budding entrepreneurs who are eager to understand the nitty-gritty of starting a sole proprietorship, its benefits, and how it stacks up against other business structures.

What is Sole Proprietorship?

A sole proprietorship, as defined by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), is the default legal structure for any individual embarking on a business venture. The most significant feature—and potential drawback—of this structure is that it does not distinguish between the owner and the business entity. If your business encounters legal or financial trouble, you shoulder the responsibility.

Who Typically Chooses Sole Proprietorships?

Here are some examples of professionals who often opt for sole proprietorships when offering their services:

  • Chefs
  • Accountants
  • Writers
  • Personal trainers
  • Landscapers
  • Editors

Other Business Entities Worth Considering

Beyond sole proprietorships, a variety of other business structures may offer more suitable benefits for your enterprise. A key advantage of these other entities is limited liability, which protects your personal assets from any business-related debts or legal obligations.

Limited Liability Company (LLC)

Unlike a sole proprietorship, an LLC offers protection for your personal assets if your business encounters legal trouble. As a “pass-through entity,” an LLC ensures that business income isn’t subject to corporate income tax. Profits are taxed as personal income only when paid out to the owner(s).


A partnership involves shared business ownership among two or more individuals, under a formal partnership agreement. It can be a viable option if you’re pooling resources with friends or partners.


Corporations are considered separate entities from their owners. There are five kinds of corporations: C corporations, S corporations, B corporations, closed corporations, and nonprofit corporations. Each type has distinct requirements regarding governance structure and taxation.

Your Guide to Starting a Sole Proprietorship

Getting a sole proprietorship off the ground is relatively simple. However, to set your business up for success, it’s crucial to follow these steps:

1. Selecting a Business Name

If you want your business to operate under a name different from your personal one, you’ll need to establish a “doing business as” (DBA) name. Registering a DBA involves filing an application with your state, often through the secretary of state’s office.

2. Obtaining an Employer Identification Number (EIN)

An EIN is required by the IRS to identify your business for tax purposes. Some banks also require an EIN to open a business bank account.

3. Opening a Business Bank Account

Maintaining a separate business bank account helps you keep your business and personal finances organized, which is crucial when applying for a business loan.

4. Securing Necessary Paperwork

Depending on your industry, you may need specific business licenses, permits, or zoning clearance to operate legally. Ensure you comply with all local and state laws and regulations to avoid unnecessary complications.

Starting a sole proprietorship is a swift and simple way to bring your business dreams to life. Understanding the process, benefits, and potential challenges can help you make an informed decision about whether this popular business structure is the best fit for your venture. In doing so, you’ll set the foundation for a prosperous entrepreneurial journey.

Advantages and Disadvantages of a Sole Proprietorship

Venturing into a sole proprietorship business model holds several advantages, from easy setup to total control over your business. However, there are also considerable challenges to take into account.

Benefits of a Sole Proprietorship

Efficiency and Simplicity

Many businesses begin as sole proprietorships because they are relatively simple and inexpensive to start. The lack of bureaucratic hurdles means that you can launch your enterprise swiftly without hefty administrative burdens. As Matt Jensen, a certified public accountant at Cook Martin Poulson, pointed out, “There is no cost to organize, and you don’t have to renew your business entity yearly with the state.”

Fewer Business Formalities

Sole proprietorships do not require articles of incorporation or organization. There’s no need for a board of directors or a registered agent. The absence of annual owner meetings or state filings simplifies operations and reduces administrative pressure.

Straightforward Taxation

Sole proprietorship taxes are much simpler than those of other business entities. As a self-employed individual, your freelance taxes resemble paying your typical personal income taxes while potentially benefiting from numerous tax deductions.

Control Over Your Business

As a sole proprietor, you hold full decision-making power and financial control. Enjoy the freedom of freelancing while reaping the benefits of operating under your own company.

Disadvantages of a Sole Proprietorship

Increased Personal Responsibility

While a sole proprietorship is a simple business entity to establish, it places significant responsibility on the business owner. It offers no legal protection for your personal assets, which means that you could risk your personal assets, such as your car or home, in the face of business liabilities.

Security Risks

Sole proprietorships can present security risks. When a business identification number is needed, you have to provide your Social Security number, which increases the risk of identity fraud.

Ineligibility for Certain Benefits

Sole proprietors do not qualify for specific business tax breaks and some of the best business loans. However, they could qualify for certain tax deductions designed for self-employed individuals.

Interesting Fact

As a sole proprietor, you can pay yourself with a payroll strategy known as an owner’s draw, which enables you to draw money from your business for personal use.

Tax Implications of a Sole Proprietorship

Filing Your Taxes as a Sole Proprietor

When it comes to filing your taxes, a sole proprietorship reports its business income and losses on personal tax returns. As part of your IRS 1040 filing, you’re also required to submit a Schedule C, Profit or Loss from Business, which documents your business’s income and expenses.

Income earned by sole proprietors is treated as personal income, explaining why it’s reported on your personal tax return. In certain cases, you may instead submit a Schedule C-EZ, which documents your net profit from the business. As the sole proprietor is seen as both the employer and the employee, they are responsible for paying both the employer and employee portions of Social Security and Medicare taxes through Form SE, Self-Employment Tax. However, the employer part of the tax can be claimed as a tax deduction when filing your tax return.

In essence, sole proprietorships offer a simple and straightforward way for entrepreneurs to bring their business ideas to life. By understanding the mechanics, benefits, and potential drawbacks, you can make an informed decision to ensure this business model is the best fit for your vision and goals.

Employee Hiring, Self-Employment, and Insurance in a Sole Proprietorship

As you contemplate the setup of a sole proprietorship, it’s essential to understand how hiring works, how self-employment relates to your business, the insurance implications, and how you’re compensated.

Can a Sole Proprietor Hire Employees?

Yes, a sole proprietor can hire employees. However, this must be done in careful compliance with local or state regulations. Additionally, you’re required to obtain an Employer Identification Number (EIN) before hiring. This number is crucial for tax-related matters, and you can’t use your Social Security number in place of a legal EIN.

What is the Difference Between a Sole Proprietor and a Self-Employed Individual?

While the terms “sole proprietor” and “self-employed” are often used interchangeably, they carry similar meanings with subtle differences. Essentially, a sole proprietor refers to the single individual operating a business. This role is different from an independent contractor who typically works for another organization or multiple organizations and is often associated with creative professions such as graphic artists or writers.

One crucial difference lies in the tax responsibilities. Independent contractors do not have taxes withheld from their payments, whereas sole proprietors are responsible for paying taxes associated with their businesses.

What are the Insurance Implications of Forming a Sole Proprietorship?

Since sole proprietors are not protected from debts or liabilities incurred by the business, securing an insurance policy is often a necessary step. To safeguard against potential lawsuits, most sole proprietors obtain either a small business insurance policy or a general liability policy.

Does a Sole Proprietor Receive a Salary?

In contrast to many other business structures, a sole proprietor does not receive a salary. As such, you cannot pay yourself a salary and claim a tax deduction for it. Your earnings are dependent on the fees you collect for the goods or services you provide to your customers.

In summary, running a sole proprietorship involves nuanced aspects related to hiring, self-employment tax responsibilities, and insurance requirements. A firm understanding of these elements will help you navigate the potential challenges and maximize your business’s success.

Written by
Madelyn Barrett

Madelyn Barrett is an accomplished reporter with a focus on entrepreneurship, startups, and business innovation. With more than a decade in the industry, Madelyn's writing has illuminated the path for many aspiring business owners. Her unique perspective stems from her experience as a former startup founder and her academic background in Business Administration. Currently residing in New York City, Madelyn remains immersed in the pulse of the business world, dedicated to bringing our readers the most relevant and impactful startup news.

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